PENERAPAN ANJURAN DIET DASH DIBANDINGKAN DIET RENDAH GARAM BERDASARKAN KONSELING GIZI TERHADAP PENURUNAN TEKANAN DARAH PADA PASIEN HIPERTENSI DI PUSKESMAS LARANGAN UTARA

Agustina Pungki Astuti, Didit Damayanti, Iskari Ngadiarti
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Abstract

The low sodium and Diet Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) are diets for reducing high blood pressure. This study aimed to analyze the effect of nutrition counseling on the DASH diet compared to low sodium diet on blood pressure in hypertensive patients. The study design was an experimental study that randomly allocated 34 respondents to DASH diet and 35 respondents to low sodium diet. The ages of respondents were 43 to 76 years and women were 74.3 percent. Nutrition counseling was conducted by researchers to respondents who visited health center or Posbindu Larangan Utara. Nutritional counseling was conducted for an average of 20 minutes using existing brochures. Low sodium diet emphasizes reducing sodium intake while DASH diet emphasis more on consuming lots of vegetables, fruit, nuts and low-fat products. Variables collected were the characteristics of respondent, disease, drugs taken and nutritional status, while blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer, food intake including sodium were measured before and 2 weeks after nutritional counseling. Results showed that there was a significant difference in diastolic blood pressure after patients were given DASH diet compared to low sodium diet (p <0.05) and there was a significant difference in delta of systolic and diastolic reduction in DASH diet compared to low sodium diet. Test also showed a significant reduction in systolic, diastolic blood pressure and sodium intake (p <0.001) in both diet groups after receiving counseling. It concluded that DASH diet can be recommended to decrease blood pressure in hypertensive patients with consider nutritional status.

 

ABSTRAK

 

Diet Rendah Garam (RG) dan Diet Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) adalah diet untuk menurunkan tekanan darah tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa pengaruh konseling gizi diet DASH dibandingkan diet RG terhadap tekanan darah pasien hipertensi. Rancangan penelitian adalah eksperimen yang secara acak mengalokasi diet DASH kepada 34 orang dan diet RG kepada 35 orang responden. Usia responden antara 43 hingga 76 tahun dan sebagian besar perempuan (74,3%). Konseling gizi dilakukan oleh tim peneliti kepada pasien hipertensi yang memeriksakan diri ke puskesmas atau posbindu Larangan Utara. Konseling gizi dilakukan rata-rata 20 menit menggunakan brosur yang sudah ada. Diet RG menekankan pengurangan asupan natrium sedangkan diet DASH lebih menekankan ke banyak konsumsi sayur, buah, kacang-kacangan dan produk rendah lemak. Variabel yang dikumpulkan adalah karakteristik responden, penyakit dan obat yang diminum serta status gizi sedangkan tekanan darah menggunakan sfigmomanometer, asupan makanan, zat gizi termasuk natrium diukur sebelum dan 2 minggu setelah konseling gizi dilakukan. Hasil menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang bermakna pada tekanan darah diastolik setelah pasien diberi diet DASH dibandingkan dengan pasien yang diberi diet RG (p<0,05) dan terdapat perbedaan delta penurunan sistolik dan diastolik bermakna pada diet DASH dibanding diet RG. Analisa juga menunjukkan adanya penurunan tekanan darah sistolik, diastolik dan asupan natrium  yang bermakna (p<0.001) pada kedua kelompok diet setelah mendapat konseling diet DASH dan diet RG. Disimpulkan diet DASH dapat direkomendasikan untuk membantu menurunkan tekanan darah pada pasien hipertensi dengan memperhatikan status gizi.

Kata kunci: hipertensi, tekanan darah, diet rendah garam, diet DASH

Keywords

hypertension; blood pressure; low sodium diet; DASH diet

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