QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF BREAKFAST OF CHILDREN AGED 2.0 TO 12.9 YEARS IN INDONESIA
Doing breakfast among children is a public health concern as seen at one of the messages in ‘Indonesian balanced nutrition which state ‘breakfast every day’. The aim of this analysis is to determine the quantity and quality of Indonesian children’s breakfast based on children and parent characteristics, as well as nutritional status. Subjects were 2629 children, aged 2.0–12.9 years, included in the Southeast Asian Nutrition Study. The amount of the breakfast is categorized as very inadequate if <15 percent; inadequate if 15 to < 25 percent; or adequate if ≥ 25 percent of the Indonesian RDA. The quality of breakfast was categorized as ‘not good’, if the breakfast skips one or more components of energy, protein and/or vitamins/minerals, or ‘good’ if the breakfast provides energy, protein and vitamins/minerals. The results indicated that on average only 31.6 percent of the children were categorized as having adequate breakfast consumption and 21.6 percent having good quality breakfast. Only 9.2 percent of children have adequate and good quality breakfast. Adequacy of breakfast differed between children, parent characteristics, and nutritional status, but only age has an association with the quality of breakfast (p<0.05). The nutrition education about good breakfast should be included as the part of curriculum, and school canteens provided a good food, as well as a campaign about Indonesian balanced nutrition slogan number 1 ‘have breakfast every day’ should be socialized.
Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia (Kementerian Kesehatan RI). Dietary Guideline (Pedoman Gizi Seimbang). Ministry of Health, Jakarta, Indonesia, 2015.
Soedibyo S, Gunawan H. Breakfast habit in elementary school children at Public Outpatient Clinics, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine-RSCM (Kebiasaan sarapan di kalangan anak usia Sekolah Dasar di Poliklinik Umum Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Anak FKUI-RSCM). Sari Pediatri. 2009;11(1):66-70.
Achadi E, Pujonarti SA, Sudiarti T, et al. Putra WKY. Primary school as entrance point to improve community’s knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of nutrition balanced (Sekolah Dasar pintu masuk perbaikan pengetahuan, sikap, dan perilaku gizi seimbang masyarakat). Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional. 2010;5(1):42-48.
Perdana F, Hardinsyah. Analysis of type, amount, and nutritional quality of breakfast among Indonesian Children (Analisis jenis, jumlah, dan mutu gizi konsumsi sarapan anak Indonesia). Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan. 2013;8(1):39-46.
Wang M, Zhong JM, Wang H, et al. Breakfast Consumption and Its Associations with Health-Related Behaviors among School-Aged Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2016;13:761. crossref
Alexy U, Wicher M, Kersting M. Breakfast trends in children and adolescents: frequency and quality. Public Health Nutr. 2009;13:1795–1802. crossref
Adolphus K, Lawton CL, Dye L. The effects of breakfast on behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents. Frontiers Hum. Neuroscience. 2013:1-28. crossref
O’Dea JA, Mugridge AC. Nutritional quality of breakfast and physical activity independently predict the literacy and numeracy scores of children after adjusting for socioeconomic status. Health Educ. Re. Adv. 2012:1-11. crossref
Hoyland A, Dye L, Lawton CL. A systematic review of the effect of breakfast on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents. Nutr. Res. Reviews. 2009;22:220–243. crossref
So HK, Nelson EAS, Li AM, et al. Breakfast frequency inversely associated with BMI and body fatness in Hong Kong Chinese children aged 9–18 years. Br. J. Nutr.2011;106:742–751. crossref
Kral TVE, Whiteford LM, Heo M et al. Effects of eating breakfast compared with skipping breakfast on ratings of appetite and intake at subsequent meals in 8- to 10-y-old children. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2011; 93:284–91. crossref.
Schaafsma A, Deurenberg P, Calame W, et al. Design of the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS): a four country multi-stage cluster design study. Br J Nutr. 2013;110:S2–10. crossref
National Institute of Health Research and Development (Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan). Manual Entry of Food Consumption Data (Pedoman entri data konsumsi makanan). National Institute of Health Research and Development , Jakarta, Indonesia, 2007.
Centre for Research and Development of Food and Nutrition (Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Gizi). Software: Nutrisoft for transforming food/dishes consumption to nutrients (Program Nutrisoft konsumsi makanan). Centre for Research and Development of Food and Nutrition, Bogor, Indonesia, 2008.
Khomsan A. Food and Nutrition for Health 2 (Pangan dan Gizi untuk Kesehatan 2). Departemen Gizi Masyarakat, Fakultas Ekologi Manusia, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, Indonesia, 2005.
Sivaramakrishnan S, Kamath V. A typical working-day breakfast among children, adolescents and adults belonging to the middle and upper socio-economic classes in Mumbai, India – challenges and implications for dietary change. Public Health Nutr. 2012;15(11):2040–2046.crossref
World Health Organization. WHO Child Growth Standards: Length/Height-for-Age, Weight-for-Age, Weightfor-Length, Weight-for-Height and Body Mass Index-for-Age: Methods and Development 2006. World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2006. Available online: http://www.who.int/childgrowth/standards/ Technical_reports.pdf (accessed on 20 July 2016).
World Health Organization. Training course on child growth assessment WHO child growth standards : Module C - Interpreting Growth Indicators. World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2008. Available online: http://www.who.int/childgrowth/training/module_c_ interpreting_indicators.pdf. (accessed on 20 July 2016).
Sandjaja, Budiman B, Harahap H et al. Food consumption and nutritional and biochemical status of 0•5–12-year-old Indonesian children: the SEANUTS study. Br. J. Nutr. 2013;110:S11–S20. crossref
Central Statistic Bureau (BadanPusatStatistik). Indonesia 2010 Population Census (Sensus Penduduk Indonesia 2010). Central Statistic Bureau, Jakarta, Indonesia, 2010.
Hardinsyah, Aries M. Type of food for breakfast and its roles in daily nutrient intakes of school age children 6-12 years in Indonesia (Jenis pangan sarapan dan perannya dalam asupan gizi harian anak usia 6-12 tahun di Indonesia). Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan. 2012;7(2):89-96.
UNICEF. Strategy for improved nutrition of children and women in developing countries. A UNICEF Policy Review. UNICEF, New York, 1990.
Hartog AP, den Staveren WA, van Brouwer ID. Manual for social surveys on food habits and consumption in developing countries. Verlag Josef Margraf,Weikersheim, Germany, 1995.
Chitra U, Reddy CR. The role of breakfast in nutrient intake of urban school children. Public Health Nutr. 2006;10(1):55–58. crossref.
Barr SI, DiFrancesco L and Fulgoni III VL Breakfast consumption is positively associated with nutrient adequacy in Canadian children and adolescents. British Journal of Nutrition 2014; 112: 1373–1383.
Wiley AS. Does milk make children grow? relationships between milk consumption and height in NHANES 1999–2002. American Journal of Human Biology 2005; 17: 425–441.
Semba RD, Moench-Pfanner R, Sun K, et al. Consumption of micronutrient-fortified milk and noodles is associated with lower risk of stunting in preschool-aged children in Indonesia. Food Nutr. Bull. 2011;32(4):347-53.
PeÂrez-Rodrigo C, Aranceta J. School-based nutrition education: lessons learned and new perspectives. Public Health Nutrition 2001; 4(1A): 131-139.
Eilat-Adar S, Koren-Morag N, Siman-Tov M, Livne I, Altmen H. School-based intervention to promote eating daily and healthy breakfast: A survey and a case–control study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011; 65:203-209.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2019 GIZI INDONESIA
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.