ASUPAN GIZI DAN POLA MAKAN IBU MENYUSUI ASI EKSKLUSIF DI WILAYAH KERJA UPT PUSKESMAS IBRAHIM AJI KOTA BANDUNG

Yusrima Syamsina Wardani, Ginna Megawati, Dewi Marhaeni Diah Herawati
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Abstract

Breast milk is the best food for babies for growth and development. The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional intake and diet of mothers who provide exclusive breastfeeding. This research design was a mixed method with a sequential explanatory strategy. Quantitative research to assess food intake, while qualitative research was used to determine the dietary patterns of mothers. Quantitative samples were 44 mothers, while qualitative samples were 5 mothers, conducted by purposive sampling. Quantitative data collection by multiple 24-hour recalls for 3 days. Qualitative data collection by in-depth interviews. Quantitative analysis was conducted descriptively, while qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. The results showed that intake of energy (36.63%) and protein (40.90%) of inadequate breastfeeding mothers (adequate if ≥ 80%). For vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin C, iron, and zinc the intake is below the RDA. Mothers who provide exclusive breastfeeding have a diet such as types of food that are not diverse, amount of food that is not certain, frequency and schedule of irregular meals. The nutritional intake and diet of breastfeeding mothers are not by guidelines for balanced nutrition.

 

ABSTRAK

ASI adalah makanan terbaik bagi bayi untuk pertumbuhan dan perkembangan. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui asupan gizi dan pola makan ibu yang memberikan ASI eksklusif di wilayah kerja UPT Puskesmas Ibrahim Aji Kota Bandung. Desain penelitian ini mixed method dengan strategi sequential explanatory. Penelitian kuantitatif untuk melihat asupan makan sedangkan penelitian kualitatif digunakan untuk mengetahui pola makan ibu yang memberikan ASI eksklusif. Jumlah sampel kuantitatif 44 orang, sedangkan kualitatif 5 orang, dilakukan secara purvosive sampling. Pengumpulan data kuantitatif dengan cara multiple 24 hour recall selama 3 hari. Pengumpulan data kualitatif dilakukan dengan wawancara mendalam. Analisis kuantitatif dilakukan secara deskriptif, sedangkan data kualitatif dengan content analysis melalui transkripsi, koding, kategorisasi, dan pembuatan tema. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, asupan energi (36,63%) dan protein (40,90%) ibu menyusui tidak adekuat (adekuat jika ≥ 80%). Untuk vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin C, kalsium, zat besi dan seng asupannya berada di bawah AKG. Ibu yang memberikan ASI eksklusif memiliki pola makan dengan jenis makanan yang tidak beragam, jumlah makanan yang tidak tentu, frekuensi dan jadwal makan yang tidak teratur. Asupan gizi dan pola makan belum sesuai dengan pedoman gizi seimbang.

 

Kata kunci: asupan gizi, pola makan, ibu menyusui ASI eksklusif

 

Keywords

nutritional intake; dietary pattern; exclusive breastfeeding mothers

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