POTENSI FEMALE ATHLETE TRIAD PADA ATLET REMAJA PUTRI DEFISIENSI BESI

Fillah Fithra Dieny, Deny Yudi Fitranti, Firdananda Fikri Jauharany, A Fahmy Arif Tsani
| Abstract views: 46 | views: 36

Abstract

The female athlete triad (FAT) is a syndrome that occurs in female athletes who have a combination of 3 related conditions and are associated with sports. The aimed of this study to analyze the relationship between iron deficiency and the state of the female athlete triad (FAT) in female athletes. The design of this study was cross sectional with 80 subjects of female athletes aged 12-18 years from various sports, who were taken by simple random sampling. The research was conducted at the Central Java Student Center for Education and Sports Training (BPPLOP). Bivariate analysis was performed using the Spearman test. Based on Ferritin, as many as 15 subjects (18.25%) had iron deficiency anemia, and FAT syndrome was not found in the subjects, however, when each sign was seen, 20 percent were classified as polimenorrhea and oligomenorrhea, and 37.5 percent experienced eating disorders. There were a significant relationship between iron deficiency based on serum ferritin (p = 0.015; r = 0.273) and Hb levels (p = 0.002; r = 0.337) with the component of athlete's bone density. However, iron deficiency (based on serum Ferritin and Hb levels) did not show a significant association with menstrual cycle disorders and eating disorders (p <0.05). Female Athlete Triad has not been found among subjects, but athletes have experienced eating behavior disorders, menstrual cycle disorders and the risk of low bone density. Iron deficiency is associated with decreased bone density in young female athletes.

 

ABSTRAK

Female athlete triad (FAT) merupakan suatu syndrom yang terjadi pada atlet wanita yang memiliki kombinasi dari 3 kondisi yang saling berkaitan, dan berhubungan dengan olahraga. Tujuan penelitian untuk menganalisis hubungan defisiensi besi dengan keadaan female athelete triad (FAT) pada atlet remaja putri. Desain penelitian ini adalah cross-sectional dengan 80 subjek atlet putri berusia 12-18 tahun dari berbagai cabang olahraga yang diambil secara simple random sampling. Penelitian dilakukan di Balai Pemusatan Pendidikan dan Latihan Olahraga Pelajar (BPPLOP) Jateng. Analisis univariat untuk mendeskripsikan data berupa distribusi dan persentase. Analisis bivariat dilakukan menggunakan uji Spearman. Berdasarkan data serum ferritin, sebanyak 15 subjek (18,25%) mengalami anemia defisiensi besi, namun belum ditemukan kejadian FAT pada subjek, tetapi bila dilihat masing masing tanda sebanyak 20 persen tergolong polimenorea dan oligomenorea, serta 37,5 persen mengalami gangguan perilaku makan. Ada hubungan yang signifikan antara defisiensi besi berdasarkan serum ferritin (p=0,015; r=0,273) dan kadar Hb (p=0,002; r=0,337) dengan komponen kepadatan tulang atlet. Namun defisiensi besi (bedasarkan serum Ferritin dan Kadar Hb) tidak menunjukkan hubungan yang signifikan dengan gangguan siklus menstruasi dan gangguan perilaku makan (p<0,05). FAT belum ditemukan pada atlet remaja putri, namun atlet sudah ada yang mengalami gangguan perilaku makan, gangguan siklus menstruasi dan risiko kepadatan tulang rendah. Defisiensi besi berhubungan dengan menurunnya kepadatan tulang atlet remaja putri.

Kata kunci: atlet; remaja putri; defisiensi besi; female athlete triad (FAT)

 

Keywords

athletes; female adolescents; iron deficiency; female athlete triad

Full Text:

PDF

References

Golden, N.H. A Review of The Female Athlete Triad. International Journal Adolescent Medicine. 2002;14(1):9–17.

Torstveit MK, Sundgot-Borgen J. The Female Thlete Triad : are Elite Athletes at Increased Risk? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2005 Feb;37(2):184–93.

Dieny FF. Permasalahan Gizi pada Remaja Putri. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu; 2014.

Blancquaert L, Everaert I, Derave W. Beta-alanine supplementation, muscle carnosine and exercise performance. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2015 Jan;18(1):63–70.

Brownlie T, Utermohlen V, Hinton PS, Haas JD. Tissue iron deficiency without anemia impairs adaptation in endurance capacity after aerobic training in previously untrained women. Am J Clin Nutr. 79(3):437–43.

Lukaski Hank. Vitamin and mineral status: Effects on physical performance. 2004 Aug;20(7):632–44.

Whiting SJ, Barabash WA. Dietary reference intakes for the micronutrients: considerations for physical activity. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006 Feb;31(1):80–5.

Almquist J, Valovich McLeod TC, Cavanna A, et al. Summary statement: appropriate medical care for the secondary school-aged athlete. J Athl Train. 2008;43(4):416–27.

Lisa D. Nutrition for exercise and sports performance. In: Krause’s food and nutrition therapy. Philadelphia, USA.: Elsevier; 2008. p. 587–603.

Pettersson U., Stålnacke B.-M., Ahlénius G.-M., Henriksson-Larsén K., & Lorentzon R. Low bone mass density at multiple skeletal sites, including the appendicular skeleton in amenorrheic runners. Calcified Tissue International. 1999;64(2):117–25.

Karen B. Female Athlete Triad. BMJ. 330:244–6.

Jeanne F. Nichols, Mitchell J. Rauh, Mandra J. Lawson, Ming Ji, Hava-Shoshana Barkai. Prevalence of the Female Athlete Triad Syndrome Among High School Athletes. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006 Feb;160(2):137–42.

Anne Z Hoch, Nicholas M. Pajewski, LuAnn Moraski, Guillermo F. Carrera, Charles R. Wilso, Raymond G. Hoffmann, Jane E. Schimke, David D. Gutterman. Prevalence Of The Female Athlete Triad In High School Athletes And Sedentary Students. Clin J Sport Med. 2009 Sep;19(5):421–8.

Loucks AB. Energy availability, not body fatness, regulated reproductive function in women. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2003 Jul;31(3):144–8.

Barash IA, Cheung CC, Weigle DS, Ren H, Kabigting EB, Kuijper JL, Clifton DK, Steiner RA. leptin is a metabolic signal to the reproductive system. Endocrinology. 1996 Jul;137(7):3144–7.

Jorrun S, Monica K. The female football player, disorder eating, menstrual function and bone health. Br J Sport Med. 2007;41(1):i68–72.

Michelle T Barrack, Mitchell J Rauh, Hava-Shoshana Barkai, Jeanne F Nichols. Dietary Restraint and Low Bone Mass in Female Adolescent Endurance Runner. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(1):36–43.

Istiqomah NP. Hubungan Antara Faktor Eksternal dan Internal terhadap Kecenderungan Penyimpangan Perilaku Makan pada Atlet Wanita di SMP/SMA Negeri Ragunan Jakarta (Skripsi). [Jakarta]: Universitas Indonesia; 2009.

Selma AV, Edral V, Gulay DA, Cem K, Lovent O. Prevalence of The Female Athlete Triad in Adirne Turkey. Journal of Sports and Medicine. 2005;4:550–5.

Annie S, Eliane AS, Fatima PO, Beatriz GR. Female Athlete Triad in Elite Swimmers of the city of Rio de Janeiro Brazil25. Elsevier. 2009 Jun;25(6):634–9.

Myburgh KH, Hutchins J, Fataar AB, Hough SF, Noakes TD. Low bone density is an etiologic factor for stress fractures in athletes. Ann Intern Med. 1990 Nov;113(10):754–9.

Petkus DL, Murray-Kolb LE, De Souza MJ. The Unexplored Crossroads of the Female Athlete Triad and Iron Deficiency: A Narrative Review. Sports Med. 47(9):1721–37.

Kemenkes RI. Laporan Hasil Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas) Indonesia tahun 2013. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kemenkes RI; 2013.

Kemenkes RI. Laporan Hasil Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas) Indonesia tahun 2018. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kemenkes RI; 2018.

RB Cook, D Collins, J Tucker, P Zioupos. Comparison of Questionnaire and Quantitative Ultrasound Techniques as Screening Tools for DXA. Osteoporosis Int. 2005;16:1565–75.

Escott-Stump S., Mahan L. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Vitamin/Mineral. In: Krause’s Food & Nutrition Therapy. 12th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2008.

Ieva Alaunyte, Valentina Stojceska, Andrew Plunkett. Iron and the female athlete: a review of dietary treatment methods for improving iron status and exercise performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr [Internet]. 2015;12(38). Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4596414/

Waters DL, Qualls CR, Dorin R, Veldhuis JD, Baumgartner RN. Increased pulsatility, process irregularity, and nocturnal trough concentrations of growth hormone in amenorrheic compared to eumenorrheic athletes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Mar;86(3):1013–9.

Kelsey JL, Bachrach LK, Procter-Gray E, Nieves J, Greendale GA, Sowers M, Brown BW Jr, Matheson KA, Crawford SL, Cobb KL. Risk factors for stress fracture among young female cross country runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Sep;39(9):1457–63.

Thein-Nissenbaum J. Long term consequences of the female athlete triad. Maturitas. 2013 Jun;75(2):107–12.

Katsumata S, Tsuboi R, Uehara M, Suzuki K. Dietary iron deficiency decreases serum osteocalcin concentration and bone mineral density in rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006 Oct;70(10):2547–70.

Toxqui L, Pérez-Granados AM, Blanco-Rojo R, Wright I, de la Piedra C, Vaquero MP. Low iron status as a factor of increased bone resorption and effects of an iron and vitamin D-fortified skimmed milk on bone remodelling in young Spanish women. Eur J Nutr. 2014;53(2):441–8.

Copyright (c) 2021 GIZI INDONESIA

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.