SEBUAH ALTERNATIF: INDEKS STUNTING SEBAGAI EVALUASI KEBIJAKAN INTERVENSI BALITA STUNTING DI INDONESIA

Zenderi Wardani, Dadang Sukandar, Yayuk Farida Baliwati, Hadi Riyadi
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Abstract

The proportion of stunting above 20 percent indicates that there are still public health problems in Indonesia. The impact of stunting not only affects the stature but also affects the economic productivity of a country. The purpose of this study was to develop index models that are responsive stunting in children under-5 years in Indonesia. Development of the index model used mathematical formulations using the SDGs indicator and other relevant indicators. Aggregate data from 16-time series were selected from 34 provinces in Indonesia in the span of 4 years (2015 - 2018). Furthermore, the method of developing a stunting index in this study was carried out through the stages of standardization, weighting, aggregation and validation. The results showed that the stunting index model is an evaluation measure that is responsive to stunting interventions in infants (0-56 months) in Indonesia. The national stunting index from 2015 to 2018 increased although it was still in the medium category with index values of 69.77, 70.29, 70.30 and 72.74, respectively. This study recommended an increase in efforts to achieve dimension index values in the development pillars of environmental and economical, especially in the eastern regions of Indonesia and the divided provinces.


ABSTRAK

Proporsi stunting lebih dari 20 persen menunjukkan bahwa masih terdapat masalah kesehatan masyarakat di Indonesia. Dampak stunting tidak hanya mempengaruhi perawakan tetapi juga mempengaruhi produktifitas ekonomi suatu negara. Sebuah model sederhana dan responsif dalam bentuk indeks stunting dapat menjadi bagian dari pilar rencana aksi intervensi stunting tersebut di atas. Model indeks stunting pun diharapkan dapat membantu pengambil keputusan (decision maker) menyusun formulasi, implementasi dan evaluasi kebijakan dalam penanggulangan stunting untuk masa yang akan datang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengembangkan model indeks stunting responsif pada anak balita di Indonesia. Pengembangan model indeks menggunakan formulasi matematis dengan menggunakan indikator Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) dan indikator terkait lainnya. Data agregat dari 16 time series dipilih dari 34 provinsi di Indonesia dalam kurun waktu 4 tahun (2015 - 2018). Selanjutnya metode pengembangan indeks stunting pada penelitian ini dilakukan melalui tahapan standardisasi, pembobotan, agregasi dan validasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa model indeks stunting pada penilitian ini merupakan ukuran evaluasi yang tanggap terhadap intervensi stunting pada bayi (0-56 bulan) di Indonesia. Indeks stunting nasional dari tahun 2015 sampai 2018 mengalami peningkatan meskipun masih dalam kategori sedang dengan nilai indeks masing-masing 69,77, 70,29, 70,30 dan 72,74. Studi ini merekomendasikan peningkatan upaya pencapaian nilai indeks dimensi pada pilar pembangunan lingkungan dan ekonomi khususnya di wilayah timur Indonesia dan daerah provinsi pemekaran.

Kata kunci: Indeks stunting, evaluasi kebijakan, anak balita


Keywords

stunting index; policy evaluation; children under five

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